We are searching data for your request:
Upon completion, a link will appear to access the found materials.
Two recent beekeepers congresses held in Europe to try to understand and deal with a situation for which they were not prepared, concluded that since the bees have not completely disappeared, Einstein's four years could be stretched to 20. Others are a little longer. generous: 40 years to the world "as we know it." Then a funeral without flowers.
Financial science shows itself as it is
For the first responsible, you have to treasure gold or seeds. Financial capital, always so calculating, does not ignore the danger and has sent wise recommendations to investors: “invest in gold or corn seeds (transgenic) in the face of possible severe alterations that could lead to an economic recession due to the breakdown of the food chain".
There are also recommendations, a bit hallucinated, to take advantage of “business opportunities” by investing in transgenic seeds capable of withstanding the climatic catastrophe.
These ideas, which do not try to avoid the hecatomb but to take advantage of it with chrematistic intent, flourish in the big cities, where the financiers reside and everything has become artificial, even thought.
Pesticides and parasites
The reasons for the extraordinary death of bees are not yet entirely clear, but there is a strong suspect: neonicotinoids, recently developed insecticides that attack the nervous system and kill insects in order to protect crops from them.
Another suspect is a parasite that attacks the digestive system of bees, which however does not relieve modern agriculture of responsibility because the effect of the insecticide and its deadly action in small doses on insects and birds have been demonstrated.
Nuclear war for bees
As it becomes increasingly clear on the extreme danger we face, modern insanity continues, fueled by the hyperbolic greed of global biogenetics corporations, notably Monsanto, Syngenta and Bayer, which has even led to threats of nuclear war. the President of Russia, Vladimir Putin, and the Vice President of the United States, John Kerry, gathered and the bees buzzed in the meeting.
Putin was "extremely outraged" by the continued protection that President Barack Obama provides to Monsanto and Syngenta, up to what is called "Monsanto Protection Act" against any lawsuit that may be made in court for the effects of its products on the health of the population.
At that meeting, the Kremlin leaders spoke of the "apocalypse of the bees" that as we see will not be limited to them but will spread to other living beings, and the security of the outbreak of a nuclear war in the event that the issue takes the most feared course.
Putin's outrage was due to the fact that while Kerry was already in Russia, he learned that Obama refused to address the issue of bees without ignoring everything behind it, because apparently his status as "president hostage" of the financial power, that forces him at every step to back down from his pre-election promises, he can do more than anything.
For now, the main risk is that the depletion of bees, an indisputable global fact, endangers food production and causes hunger, the old curse, to fall on all humanity.
It is already beginning to be seen that the "green revolution" not only does not increase food production but also impoverishes the earth, creates deserts and prepares a dark future.
For Russians, and for specialists around the world that Monsanto and Obama refuse to hear, neonicotinoids are killing bees. These are insecticides with which crops are generously watered, the most used today, with a chemical structure similar to the nicotine molecule and an effect on the nervous system of insects.
The European Union temporarily banned insecticides capable of killing bees, following the example of several of its countries that had already done so.
There are almost 20,000 species of bees or "anthophiles", a Greek word that means "that loves flowers." They are hymenopteran insects within the Apoidea super family.
They are found throughout the world in habitats where there are flowering plants. They feed on pollen and nectar; pollen is food for the larvae and nectar, energy material.
The domestic bee, Apis mellifera, is a well-known social insect that lives in swarms, although most of the other species are solitary. Bumblebees, like the mangangá, (xylocopa augusti) are semisocial or solitary, they do not form large or long-lasting colonies like the domestic bee.
The oldest known bee, a fossil preserved in amber, is 100 million years old and was similar to wasps.
The first pollinators were beetles and flies, but the specialization of bees led them to be more efficient. Flowering plants or angiosperms, of which there are about 400,000 species, emerged rapidly about 130 million years ago, when there were still no bees but other pollinating insects.
It is possible that, if the “green revolution” and its collateral effects continue, a story that began 100 million years ago, when homo sapiens was not even planned and dinosaurs reigned in the animal world, it is about to end with consequences very negative for the rest of life because of a newcomer who thinks he knows and can do everything.
Did the apocalypse start in 2006?
In 2006 beekeepers began to notice that bees died, or rather, disappeared. In an atypical behavior, the workers left the queen and flew to death far away.
At first there was no explanation for what was called "the collapse of the colonies", which has already caused the loss of 90 percent of the hives in the United States.
The conjectures pointed to global warming as responsible for the mortality, others spoke of systemic pesticides and some blamed cell phones and the possibility that the multiplication of electronic signals disoriented bees.
But little by little attention turned to pesticides and neurotoxins, and within them to neonicotinoids that Syngenta, Monsanto and Bayer commercialize around the world to treat genetically modified seeds.
As a consequence, we will not only eat less honey, which affects us little Argentines, who do not have the habit of ingesting it but occasionally, to the point that 90 percent is exported.
The serious thing is that bees are irreplaceable in the biological chain, they are a decisive factor in pollination and in the production of almost all food for men and animals.
Agriculture in the world depends on 70 percent of small insects and 84 percent in Europe.
If the bees were to disappear, it would lead to a global food catastrophe, with huge increases in food prices - good news for Monsanto and Syngenta.
If we also consider the effect of pollination on the life of jungles and forests, the apocalypse implicit in the words attributed to Einstein becomes a palpable possibility.
What the "green revolution" hides
Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides in the world. Nicotine is a powerful poison used by the tobacco plant as a defense. But in nature, birds and insects must reach the plant to feel the effects of the poison.
With the large-scale production of products with similar or more powerful effects, the risk has multiplied enormously, breaking the balance that nature reaches by itself when it is not disturbed by human actions calculated for the sole purpose of profit, presented as the top of rationality.
A recent report by the American Bird Conservancy (ABC), of the United States, clearly warns of the global danger: “as part of a study on the effects of the type of insecticide most used in the world, the neonicotinoids, the American Bird Conservancy (ABC) has called for its ban to treat seeds, as well as for the suspension of all applications pending an independent review of the effects of said products on birds, terrestrial or aquatic invertebrates and other wild animals. ”.
“It is clear that these chemicals have the potential to affect the entire food chain. The persistence in the environment of neonicotinoids, their propensity to discharge and infiltration into groundwater, as well as their cumulative and largely irreversible way of acting on invertebrates, poses significant environmental problems ”.
A 100-page report commissioned by the ABC from environmental toxicologist Pierre Mineau, reviews 200 studies on neonicotinoids.
The report assesses the toxicological risk to birds and aquatic systems and includes extensive comparisons with previous pesticides that have been replaced by neonicotinoids. The assessment concludes that neonicotinoids are lethal to birds and the aquatic systems on which they depend.
The result is that a single neonicotinoid-coated grain of corn can kill a bird. A grain of wheat or rapeseed treated with the oldest of the neonicotinoids - called imidacloprid - can fatally poison a bird.
"As little as one tenth of a neonicotinoid-coated maize seed per day during the incubation season can affect reproduction."
This report allowed beekeepers and environmentalists to sue the Obama regime, which listens to no opinions other than those of Monsanto. The regime, now facing serious allegations of espionage, has placed agents of multinational biotechnology companies in the watchdog.
In almost the same way, the financier Goldman Sachs put its men in the governments of Greece and Italy to collect a debt that nobody verified; but that Goldman helped create.
The root of the problem is in the world agricultural system founded on "monsters", which are genetically modified seeds. Monsanto, through laws similar to those that are about to be passed in Chile and will shortly be proposed in Argentina as well, intends to force farmers to buy their seeds, and imprison them just for keeping seeds from the previous harvest for planting, as stated It has been doing since the Neolithic.
The situation is serious from any point of view: it is about establishing a new slavery, this time of all-powerful companies that have a backing from governments that until recently would have seemed impossible.
Monsanto cannot be brought to justice, it has in some countries a seed police force that allows it to raid barns to discover the “crime” of conserving seeds and not buying them from them, and it has managed to get the United States government to put its managers in the control institutions, to guarantee either a favorable report or impunity.
Faced with the evidence of the problems that it had raised, Monsanto obtained from the political power an act that guarantees that the Americans will not be able to appeal against it when they fall ill and many die as a result of the greatest agricultural disaster of humanity, which silently announces another, caused by the death of bees.
In Argentina, the inexhaustible anguish of soybean farmers, added to their short-term blindness, has made it possible for them to sow the oilseed even on the shoulders of the routes, which previously had to remain clear.
In addition, they irrigate rural houses and schools with pesticides, without complying with any norms, rather making fun of them as those who know their impunity, protected by the blind eye of the public institutions that should control them.
The planting on the shoulders, which made the road authorities proud that they thought to favor production, left the bees without a strip of natural plants and flowers and cornered them in the mountains, which are being razed to plant soybeans in order to complete the fence . All in favor of usury, which is quick death, and nothing for the bees, which are life.
As a sign of how serious the problem is, Discover magazine reported that last winter in California's Central Valley there were not enough insects to pollinate the 800,000 acres of almond trees, and farmers had to hastily import bees from Australia.
Pollination is the transfer of pollen from the stamens to the pistil, that is, from the male to female organs of the flowers.
Bees, bumblebees, butterflies, some birds, and other insects participate in pollination; but pollen has other ways of fertilizing, for example through wind or water, as is the case with grass and conifers.
That is why bees are essential in the case of flowers that have viscous or heavy pollen, which cannot be detached or carried by the wind.
Pollination can occur within the same flower or between different flowers
Some plants can reproduce by other systems, for example by cuttings or pieces of the plant organism capable of regenerating the whole body, producing a "clone" of the original plant.
Pollen can reach the flowers carried by the wind, by water or by animals. In this case of "entomophilic" fertilization, which is the most efficient and frequent, there are bees.
Flowers, with their aroma and their colors, are not made for us but to attract pollinators and in fact they have colors that we do not see, but bees and butterflies do.
As a pollinator, the honey bee is the most effective, especially among plants of agricultural interest. Years ago, out of every hundred visiting insects, there were between 70 and 80 bees; but that percentage had risen to 95% due to the decline of wild pollinating species.
The social behavior of bees allows them to overcome the cold of winter and have energy to pollinate as soon as spring arrives. A medium bee colony has about 50,000 workers.
Most go out every day to look for pollen and nectar, visiting up to 50 flowers each day. This implies millions of flowers visited per day, around 700 hectares per hive. One kilogram of honey arises from hundreds of thousands of libations of nectar by bees.
The great adaptability of the bee to any type of flora is another point in its favor, and even more so since it is combined with its fidelity to a given plant species, because when the bees have chosen a species, they work with it until they are exhausted. their reserves of nectar and pollen. In fact, the pollen grains they carry on their legs are, in 90 percent of cases, of a single species.
Modern agriculture, which is killing bees, depends on them more than the previous one, because it is based on monoculture and protected crops.
At first, the intensive use of pesticides killed bumblebees, solitary bees, wasps and other pollinating insects, but now it is rapidly killing bees as well.
Bees were traditionally valued for their products: royal jelly, propolis, honey and wax, but later they were valued above all for their pollinating capacity, precisely what the very people who valued them are destroying.
In the United States, the calculation was that the benefits of pollination were between 100 and 1,000 times greater than the income from honey and the other products of the hive. Something similar was calculated in Italy.
In some fruit trees that were experimentally prevented from visiting bees, fruit production was barely two percent of that expected, because only the wind acted as a pollinator.
It is estimated that the economic activity produced by bees with their pollinating activity is around 10 billion euros.
The Nosema ceranae
Bees are not just another group of animals in danger of extinction, because if they disappear they put the rest of life on earth at risk. Its decline is due, from what we know so far, to neonicotinoids and also to a parasite called "Nosema ceranae", which affects mortality and the decrease in production of the hives that survive.
In Spain they have established that hives are affected by the parasite, but they recommend not using neonicotinoids.
The problem is summed up in that of the 100 crops that provide 90 percent of the world's food, more than 70 percent are pollinated by bees.
Nosema Ceranae kills bees and favors other lethal factors for these insects, such as the parasitic Varroa mite, which affects the hives in Entre Ríos.
There are also other parasites that could be doing their part, such as a small beetle that damages the hives, which in favor of the pesticide attack would be causing more damage now than before.
On the other hand, the increasing air pollution reduces the scope of the chemical messages emitted by flowers, making it more difficult for bees and other pollinating insects to locate them. If the bees do not find the flowers they do not eat well, and if the flowers are not found by the bees they do not reproduce.
For its part, the International Union for Conservation of Nature estimates that more than 20,000 plant species could disappear due to the pollinator crisis.
As corresponds to people occupied only with what can yield them some profit, studies have focused on the apis mellifera, the common bee, but they know little about the species that have no commercial use.
In any case, the serious decline of bumblebees is missed in Colombia because they are important pollinators of plants in the Andean region.
Suspicions about neonicotinoids came to fruition in the 1990s, when some French beekeepers noticed that bees feeding on Imidacloprid-sprayed flowers became slow and less productive.
Imidacloprid is a neonicotinoid that was later studied at Harvard, where they corroborated in the laboratory what the French beekeepers noticed.
Other studies revealed that pollen collected by bees contained high levels of neonicotinoids and other chemical toxins, leading to a two-year preventive ban in Europe of this class of pesticides.
The parasite, for its part, could have taken advantage of the bees' weakness to increase their virulence. It sucks the hemolymph, equivalent to the blood of the insect and weakens it, leaving it more exposed to insecticides.
In Argentina, Inta did some experiments to determine what a world would be like without bees. Agronomist Salvador Sangregorio and his collaborators, from Inta Alto Valle, demonstrated that trees isolated from bees developed very few fruits.
In particular, trials on pear trees of the Abate Fetel variety, it was determined that production fell 40 percent. The same happened with other crops such as almond trees, rapeseed and vicia.
Dr. Marina Basualdo, researcher and teacher at the Buenos Aires School of Veterinary Sciences said: "a third of the food consumed in the world depends on pollination by bees for its production." "The different actors involved in production systems must be made aware of the threats that harm bees and consequently food production."
The mode of action of neonicotinoids is similar to that of nicotine-derived insecticides, which act on the central nervous system.
In insects, neonicotinoids cause paralysis leading to death, often within hours. However, they are much less toxic to mammals. Because neonicotinoids block a specific neuronal pathway that is more abundant in insects than in warm-blooded mammals, these insecticides are therefore selective against insects compared to mammals.
These poisons act on a specific site, the postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptor, and there is no record of cross-resistance with carbamates, organophosphates, or synthetic pyrethroids, an important fact in resistance to insecticides. As a group they are effective against sucking insects such as the Aphididae, but also against Coleoptera and some Lepidoptera.
Imidacloprid is possibly the most widely used insecticide on the global market. Currently it is applied to the soil, seeds, wood and animal pests, as well as in foliar treatments in crops such as cereals, cotton, grains, legumes, potatoes, rice, it is systemic with particular effectiveness against sucking insects and has a long residual effect.
The earth is threatened by the inconsiderate and devastating attitude that humanity has increasingly assumed towards nature, which it believes is the owner with the right to use and abuse.
Traditional wisdoms specifically condemn this view. The Hopi of the Grand Canyon of the Colorado, for example, understand that the severe problems facing all life on earth, including man, “is a warning that the time of destruction is near; we can't escape anymore ”.
For them, the initial mistake of modern peoples is that they have no real title to the land. They build their power through resources taken by force, which they then use to generate more power and then take more resources: a spiral that will end up crushing everything.
The Hopi's forecast is that a power so constructed will crumble and Westerners “will soon see how little power and authority they really have. Let's hope they heed our warnings for their own benefit. ”EcoPortal.net